العبارات التي تستعمل في إنشاء فقرات بالإنجليزية
here are some of the written expressions
that could be included in this year's baccalaurteat exam
all i need is your prayers and a tiny little thank you
prepare a short talk about the following topic
"modern civilisation has kept changing at fast space
A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their
parents thanks to the progress made in science and technology. But in
practice, the outcome of this progress was slow to materialise. For
instance, most people still used to travel long distances on foot or by
stage coach. And as mechanisation was not introduced significantly in
daily activities, household chores still had to be done manually, and
were therefore time consuming.
On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social cohesion,
since people had more opportunities to meet and interact. So they were
able to chat with neighbours at shops or in clubs and have a cup of
coffee with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise,
family visits were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the
grandparents who used to tell traditional tales or sing lullabies or
folk songs to their grandchildren. Unfortunately, with the development
of audiovisual means such as the cinema, radio, television and then
personal appliances like the computer, CD-roms and DVDs, the chances of
socialisation are dwindling and the lack of interaction between people
may increase stress, loneliness and anxiety.
Could we then complain that we are missing out on some ingredients in
life which used to make our great grandparents happier? This is probably
so, since closer contacts among neighbours, friends and families had to
be beneficial for communal harmony. However, scientific progress in all
fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and
communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today
quite fulfilling and, if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.
write an essay about the challenges faced by modern civilisation
There are three major threats to our civilisation, which can lead to the
destruction of mankind. We have first nuclear energy, which has been a
constant liability ever since the explosion of atomic bombs in 1945;
there is also pollution, a major cause for concern with the massive and
noxious increase in industrial activities and mechanisation; finally,
climate change constitutes another threat, as an outcome of the first
two mentioned problems.
The escalation of nuclear weaponry since World War Two has exposed
humanity to a nuclear war that would not compare at all with Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, since it could wipe out life on earth many times over. The
Cold War was a period of tension between the two most heavily equipped
nations in terms of nuclear warheads, the USA and the USSR. The Détente
that came after did not suppress all worries, since other countries have
the bomb, and could use it any time.
There are also indirect consequences to owning nuclear energy. Indeed, a
lethal form of pollution can originate from it if accidents in nuclear
power plants occur. But apparently less dangerous forms of pollution,
generated by an ever- increasing industrialisation, can also cause
severe illnesses and deaths. We can think of all the chemicals dumped by
factories underground, or in rivers and seas, or of the enormous amounts
of smoke emitted in the air by factories and vehicles. All of these are
causing all sorts of illnesses in humans and threatening wildlife.
Apart from these direct consequences, the third threat to our
civilisation, climate change, is directly related to the first two
mentioned. Smoke has resulted in the greenhouse effect, responsible for
the increase in mean temperature in the world. Consequently, the ice
caps in the north and south poles are shrinking, the sea level is rising,
rains have become irregular, hurricanes are more frequent, monsoons are
more destructive, droughts have intensified, and have reached usually
wet parts of the world. Therefore, the danger of famine is real , and
can even lead to dramatic wars over the possession of the meagre
resources remaining. Surely the impending threat of nuclear warfare, and
the lethal chemicals spread in the environment make the world a
dangerous place to live. The tons of smoke sent out in the atmosphere
also constitute a health hazard, and are responsible for climate change.
There are indeed urgent measures to be taken by governments to make
human activities safer if our civilisation is to survive and thrive.
fighting fraud and corruption
Dear fellow citizens,
Corruption is an evil that must be fought now! In order to win this
fight I urge all people of good will to unite around me.
If I were elected Head of State, I would implement the following
anti-corruption programme. To begin with, I would appoint dedicated
civil servants who would work honestly for the country: stealing money
or accepting a bribe in exchange for a service is unethical
and illegal. Next, I would pass stringent laws to protect citizens and
punish embezzling and bribe-taking. I cannot tolerate that honest
citizens be the victims of corrupt civil servants.
I would also fight tax evasion and capital flight. Those who earn a lot
of money must pay their taxes and contribute to the development of the
country. Therefore any tax evader would be severely punished by
specially appointed tribunals.
Finally, I would rehabilitate the value of work. Mutual trust is a moral
value that we should teach our children from infancy. A little money
earned honestly brings a lot of happiness and peace of mind.
To conclude, I could tell you, fellow countrymen that your
role as citizens is indispensable to fight corruption. No government can
succeed without the help of civil society. Therefore, I urge you again
to gather around me to win this decisive battle. Vote for honesty ! Vote
write an opinion article about counterfeiting disadvantages
Some people argue that counterfeiting benefits consumers by giving them
access to lower-price goods. This is a totally mistaken claim. First,
imitated goods are poor quality and do not last long. There is then no
guarantee of value for money and more importantly, that fake goods are
safe. Imagine how much damage low quality parts fitted in a car can do
to the driver and passengers when they fail!
Secondly, if we think of fake foods or medicines, and the criminal
procedures used by the people who make them, we can only remain firm on
buying genuine products. There are several cases of substitute edibles
which have caused dangerous diseases to people and which have resulted
in long-lasting law suits. The outcomes could only be compensations paid
for irreparable damage but the moral damage caused to the victims can
never be repaired! Recent figures released by the European Union show
that the customs are confiscating 100 million fake items every year.
Thirdly, it is highly immoral to reap where other people have sown.
Pirating products is indeed imitating other people’s property, and
refusing to engage in a creative act. It is much more rewarding to turn
one’s abilities to creating new objects of value that could serve the
community, or improve the performance of existing ones.
Fourthly, pirating objects is by essence theft, especially when the
producer of a fake item affixes the label of a well-known trade mark on
it. Some countries are notorious for their practice of counterfeit
objects. One wouldn’t like Algerians to be known for practising this
dubious trade, as much as one wouldn’t like to see them buy cheap, fake
products and head into unsuspected troubles.
write a letter to a friend describing your school
Today, I’ll write to you about my school. And the least I can say is
that I feel quite happy and comfortable in it.
First, let me mention its old stone building, surrounded by a nice
flower garden. The flowers are carefully arranged, and in spring, they
give off a nice scent when we head for the classes through the garden.
Further back, there are two large courtyards with enough space and
benches to play or relax. There are also big, ancient olive trees near
the walls, where birds perch and nest. We can hear them warble and chirp
all year round.
Let me also describe my classroom. It is large and well decorated, with
old-fashioned brown desks, and posters and pictures all over the walls.
And then, there are those cabinets full of books which smell of old
paper. Actually, I like borrowing a book from to time and dream of all
the adventures and mysteries I read about.
I’ll finally say a few words about my teachers. I’m lucky to have such
good and considerate people around me. They are so keen to see the
students do well. They are always prepared to answer our questions, and
they really want to make sure we understand the hard parts of the
lessons and exercises. I like the way teachers get us involved. They
surely have children of their own at school, which explains why they
understand how we feel.
So if there is one good reason why I like my school, it surely is
because the teaching staff are so caring, and so friendly. I can’t dream
of a better school!
prepare a speech about the the possible changes that are likely to
happen in our lifestyle
We may live a totally different life in the next few decades because
modernity has brought with it a new life style. Nowadays people take
less time to eat, go to fast food shops to gulp hamburgers, hot dogs and
chips. In the future, we might have conventional food being replaced by
food substitutes like pills, or we might get our nutrients out of crude
oil; that would shorten meal times even further. Conversely, many people
are prepared to spend more time shopping in supermarkets (and even on
the Internet). A lot of them are now becoming shopaholics, buying
products that they don’t really need. Their number will rise further in
the near future.
This is partly because it is much easier to shop, especially as more and
more supermarkets are equipped with fast serving cash desks which
prevent long queues. In the future, shop assistants may be replaced by
robots which could actually do the same job as them, with greater
efficiency and in less time. That of course would probably have side
effects like an increase in unemployment.
Leisure will also change, because of the development of all sorts of
electronic devices, like the multimedia, cable television and other
contrivances. People will be less tempted to go out for a film, a play
or a concert. They’ll pay even less visits to each other because the
cell phone is such a convenient way to keep in touch. And what to say
about the Internet through which people can instantly chat with and
watch each other via the web cam! Alternatively, we’ll have more free
time to enjoy holidays at lower prices in distant places. But is this
life of the future the kind of life people would like to have? Couldn’t
modernity preserve social relations and be a means to an end rather than
an end in itself?
Food safety has become one of the major worries for mankind. This worry
has three major sources: the chemical contamination of agricultural
products, the use of additives, preservatives and colourings in a large
number of food products and the consumption of ready-made food.
Perhaps the first cause for worry about food safety is the highly
intensive mode of farming and agribusiness now prevailing in
industrialised countries. This has led big companies to use chemicals,
fertilisers and pesticides to ensure maximum output. As a result, fruits
and vegetables are contaminated by chemicals which may prove harmful to
The second cause for concern is again related to mass production, and
the need to keep products fresh and attractive. Consumer requirements
have led manufacturers to introduce colourings, additives and
preservatives. Some of them have been suspected of being dangerous while
others have definitely been classified as harmful by independent
research laboratories. Scientists maintain that some colourings and
sugar substitutes can cause cancer, diabetes and other ****bolic
Finally, fast food and ready-made meals have led people to take
undesirable eating habits, like nibbling at work or at home, or having
frequent snacks in front of the computer or the TV set. More worrying is
the fact that the younger generation are the most prone to consume fast
food and soft drinks. These eating habits, as shown in “advanced”
countries especially, have caused a large part of the population to
become overweight or obese, and to develop diseases like diabetes or
high blood pressure. These are due to an excess consumption of animal
fat and fried food, as well as sugar and salt.
In conclusion, the conjunction of contaminated agricultural products,
processed foods and poor eating habits is indeed a good reason to worry
about food safety and to take corrective measures to change or improve
our attitudes to eating.
a presentation of the moon
The Moon is an earth satellite orbiting our planet from a distance of
384,000kms on average, and its orbit is in a west-to-east direction. Its
surface gravity is only 0.16 that of the Earth (one sixth), and it does
not seem to have life on it, since it has neither atmosphere nor water.
Minimum and maximum temperatures on it are wide apart, with +110˚C on
the sunlit side and –170˚C in lunar nights. The geology of this
satellite is rock only, and its age is about 4,6 billion years.
Plans to reach the Moon on space crafts have been on scientists’ minds
since early 20th century. But they became more concrete when the
Russians launched space crafts Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 in 1957, the
second one carrying dog Laika. In 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth,
followed by the American astronaut John Glenn in 1962. Finally, America
won the honour of reaching the Moon before Russia, when Neil Armstrong
set foot on it on July 21st 1969.
There are at present plans to build a space base on the Moon, to set a
giant telescope and launch space ships from there to distant planets,
and perhaps to other solar systems.
what would happen if a comet collided with the earth ???
I sometimes think with awe about the possible consequences for life on
earth if a comet collided with our planet. I can imagine it hurtling
through the atmosphere before it makes its terrible impact on some part
of a continent. Scientists do say that a similar incident took place
many thousand years ago, and provoked the extinction of many giant
animal species, including dinosaurs.
An enormous crater would form, and possibly cause a volcanic eruption
which would send a heavy layer of particles and ash high up in the sky
to stop the sun rays from reaching the Earth. Our planet would then be
in the dark for many years, and consequently the temperatures would drop
A change in the climate could indeed occur, rainfalls and snowfalls
would be frequent, heavy and long lasting, and floods would result from
them; the sea level would probably rise, and cause some flat regions of
the Earth to be totally immersed.
Another possible consequence of the impact would be a gigantic
earthquake which would destroy many inhabited areas and kill a huge
number of people. If the impact were near an ocean, a tsunami could
develop and flood vast areas of flat land, causing many people to die or
Facts in the past have shown that a disaster like an impact of a
heavenly body on Earth could destroy life, or at least alter living
conditions dramatically. The same could be repeated if another collision
occured. This is why scientists are thinking up space programmes to find
ways of preventing another accident of this kind.
A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun as seen
from Earth, and can happen only at new Moon. During a total eclipse the
Sun’s corona can be seen. A total solar eclipse can last up to 7.5
minutes. When the Moon is at its farthest from the Earth it does not
completely cover the face of the Sun, leaving a ring of sunlight
visible. This is an annular eclipse. Between two and five solar eclipses
occur each year but each is visible only from a specific area. A lunar
eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth,
becoming dim until emerging from the shadow. Lunar eclipses may be
partial or total, and they can happen only at full Moon. Total lunar
eclipses last up to 100 minutes; the maximum number each year is three.
A total solar eclipse visible from southwestern England took place on 11
August 1999 and lasted for two minutes. This was the first total solar
eclipse to be visible from the UK since 1927, the next will be in 2090.
imagine you are an agony aunt givin advice for teenagers about the panic
that comes with the baccalaureate exam
I’m very sorry to hear that you are having difficulty coping with stress
and anxiety, due to the forthcoming final examination. I more than
sympathise with your being depressed. Let me tell you however that
taking a few commonsense steps would restore confidence and cheerfulness
I think you are working too hard, and not taking enough time for breaks.
Do you know that cramming and doing exercises endlessly produce more
anxiety in you? That’s why you don’t feel you have time to spare for
your friends, and to enjoy some of the pleasures of life you are
So, as I said, you should relax and sleep regularly, meanwhile leaving
your brain to process the hardest points of lessons and activities. You
should go out for walks or practise some sport everyday to help you
relax. You ought not to worry constantly about the time when your exam
occurs, lest you would lose your concentration on the appointed day.
Think that after all, you have reached a good level of competence, and
that you have enough strategies at this stage to decide how to organise
your work. Let me tell you again that when the exam comes, always start
with the things you can do easily and leave time for the most tricky
I’m sure that when the time comes, you will be able to overcome your
stress and perform quite successfully.
I wish you all the best.
describe the feelings and emotions expected from algerian in various
The death of a close friend or a relative, the occurrence of a natural
disaster or an accident, and other fatalities are likely to generate
different feelings and emotions in people.
Actually the difference in reaction is more particularly a question of
gender. Men will tend to hide their grief over the death of somebody
they know, or their awe when they witness a tragedy; during a natural
disaster, they will try not to panic and control their emotions; instead,
they will react by taking steps to protect their families and neighbours.
Women will show their emotions more openly. They will express their
sadness and mourning, and cry profusely when they learn about a
relative’s death. Likewise, they will be rather shocked and terrified
when they see an accident in which there are casualties. Finally, they
are likely lose their self- control, and fail to take the right
decisions to protect themselves in an emergency.
The difference in response regarding the expression of love and
affection will most likely follow the same pattern. Men always try to
avoid excessive sentimentality. They generally avoid showing in verbal
manner too much emotion and feelings to their families and friends; they
will express their care in a different way; for instance by showing
concern, offering help or giving presents. Women are again prone to
showing their feelings more openly. They would more often than not use
terms of endearment, and they often hug and kiss family members,
The differing levels of sensitivity between men and women concerning the
facts of life is probably the reason why their marks of sympathy and
affection are dissimilar. But the male and female attitudes are
complementary, and both necessary for good human interaction.
مواضيع نموذجية BAC في اللغة الإنجليزية
مرفوقة بالإجابة النموذجية
تحتوي على جميع الأفكار و القواعد ففي حالة فهمك و إستعابك لطريقة الإجابة
على جميع هذه المواضيع فإنك ستحصل على 20/20 في اللغة الإنجليزية إنشأالله في